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El fósforo, el nitrógeno, el hierro y el potasio son algunos compuestos necesarios para el crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal. Los fertilizantes químicos empleados para aumentar su concentración afectan significativamente el medioambiente y los ecosistemas del suelo. De acuerdo con la literatura científica, los microorganismos con potencial biofertilizante han demostrado poseer diversos mecanismos de acción para solubilizar estos compuestos y así cumplir con los requerimientos de las plantas. La presente revisión sistemática recopila información científica (publicada entre los años 2004 y 2014) que describe los mecanismos de acción de los biofertilizantes microbianos en suelos agrícolas. Se usaron tres bases de datos: ScienceDirect, SpringerLink y Scopus, mediante la ruta de búsqueda (biofertilizer) AND (bacteria OR fungi) AND (effect OR action OR mechanism). Tras la comprobación con diversos criterios de inclusión y exclusión, la búsqueda arrojó un total de 63 artículos originales, incluyendo seis de publicaciones no indexadas. Como resultado de la revisión sistemática, se evidenció que la producción de diversos ácidos orgánicos permite la acidificación del suelo, lo cual facilita la absorción de los elementos. También se pudo observar que la solubilización de fósforo es el mecanismo más frecuentemente descrito, obtenido por Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes con hasta 726,5 mg/L de solubilización en este elemento.

absorción de sustancias nutritivas, acidificación, ácidos orgánicos, biofertilizantes

Sara Paulina Restrepo Correa

Microbióloga Industrial y Ambiental, Universidad de Antioquia. Investigadora, Grupo de Investigación Salud y Sostenibilidad, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia. 

Eliana Carolina Pineda-Meneses

Microbióloga Industrial y Ambiental, Universidad de Antioquia. Investigadora, Grupo de Investigación Salud y Sostenibilidad, Universidad de Antioquia. 

Leonardo Alberto Ríos-Osorio

PhD, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Docente e investigador, Grupo de Investigación Salud y Sostenibilidad, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia. 
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