Levaduras: probióticos y prebióticos que mejoran la producción animal

Marilce Castro, Fernando Rodríguez
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21930/rcta.vol6_num1_art:33

A fin de reducir el uso indiscriminado de antibióticos en la producción animal, se ha explorado el uso de diversas alternativas entre las que se encuentran probióticos, prebióticos y simbióticos los cuales representan un avance terapéutico potencialmen­te significativo y seguro. Los probióticos son microorganismos vivos que agregarse como suplemento en la dieta, favorecen la digestión y ayudan al mantenimiento del equilibrio de la flora microbiana en el intestino. Los prebióticos son ingredientes no digeribles de la dieta que estimulan el crecimiento o la actividad de uno o más tipos de bacterias benéficas en el colon. Los simbióticos combinan en sus formulaciones principios prebióticos y probióticos que actúan sinérgicamente. Estos productos al ser suministrados directamente a los animales mejoran su metabolismo, salud y produc­ción. Entre los probióticos se cuentan las levaduras que inducen efectos positivos en términos de desempeño productivo en especies monogástricas, pero no pueden colo­nizar el tracto digestivo. En monogástricos los principales efectos de la suplementación con levaduras y sus derivados (mananos) son la estimulación de las disacaridasas de las microvellosidades, el efecto antiadhesivo frente a patógenos, la estimulación de la inmunidad no específica, la inhibición de la acción tóxica y el efecto antagonista frente a microorganismos patógenos. Por otra parte, las enzimas, minerales, vitaminas y otros nutrientes o factores de crecimiento que producen las levaduras inducen respuestas benéficas en la producción animal. Por todo esto los probióticos, prebióticos y sim­bióticos ofrecen la posibilidad de mantener el crecimiento de animales alimentados con dietas sin antibióticos y bajo condiciones de estrés. Esta revisión versa sobre los mecanismos mediante los cuales las levaduras y sus biomoléculas derivadas afectan de manera positiva los componentes celulares, tejidos y sistemas de los animales, lo cual tiene influencia sobre los niveles de producción y la salud del huésped.

 

 

Levaduras; Mananos; Antibióticos; Crecimiento; Monogástricos

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