Contenido principal del artículo

Con la finalidad de conocer y entender las características fisiológicas y productivas de especies forrajeras con una alta potencialidad para ser involucradas dentro de los sistemas silvo-pastoriles, se llevó a cabo el presente estudio sobre Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Las plantas se ubicaron bajo condiciones de vivero (17°C) y siembra directa en campo (22°C), en la estación experimental La Esperanza, localizada en el municipio de Fusagasugá (Cundinamarca, Colombia) a 4°16´34´´ N y 23´11´´ W, 1750 msnm, 20°C de temperatura promedio, 1200 mm./año, el 81% de humedad relativa y 1387 horas de luz/año. Los muestreos se realizaron cada ocho (8) días y se evaluaron los estados de crecimiento y desarrollo de la especie forrajera Hibiscus y el modelo de distribución radicular. Cuando la planta de Hibiscus rosa-sinensis se desarrolla bajo condiciones de vivero se genera un modelo de raíz gravitrópico, fuerte, con dos raíces principales pivotantes, con abundantes y extensas raíces laterales primarias y secundarias (Modelo Tsutsumi et al, 2003); por el contrario, en campo el modelo predice que las plantas desarrollan un modelo radicular plagio-gravitrópico superficial; a los 105 días la relación raíz:brote (R:B) es muy deficiente (0,16), frente a las de vivero (0,25). Las dos (2) raíces principales y las laterales primarias y secundarias no son muy abundantes. Hasta los 105 días después de la siembra, las plantas bajo las condiciones de vivero son superiores a las establecidas en siembra directa en su índice de área foliar (IAF), área foliar efectiva (AFE), tasa de asimilación neta (TAN) y, por consiguiente, en su tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR); a partir de este tiempo, las plantas en campo comienzan una fase de crecimiento exponencial, como lo mostró la TCR y la TAN. La especie Hibiscus rosa-sinensis necesariamente requiere una fase de vivero de hasta los 98 o 105 días. El sistema de raíz desarrollado por la planta permite conocer que la fertilización temprana no sería viable y que ésta se puede realizar a partir de los 60 días después del transplante, cuando el desarrollo alométrico de la planta es equilibrado. Las tasas e índices fisiológicos (TAN, RAF, AFE, IAF, TCR) nos permiten proponer la especie Hibiscus rosa-sinensis como una planta óptima para los sistemas de silvopastoreo y planificar las labores culturales y agronómicas como especie forrajera.

 

 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Silvopastoreo, Agroforestería, Forrajes, Tasa de crecimiento relativo

Nestor Dario Cuéllar, Universidad de Cundinamarca, Fusagasugá

Trabajo de grado. Programa: Ingeniería Agronómica, 2009.

Juan Manuel Arrieta Herrera, Universidad de Cundinamarca, Fusagasugá.

Docente TCO. Programa: Ingeniería Agronómica.
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