Señales de reconocimiento entre plantas y hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares

Margarita Ramírez Gómez, Alia Rodríguez Villate
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21930/rcta.vol11_num1_art:195

La asociación entre Hongo formadores de micorrizas arbusculares (HFMA) y las plantas ha permitido la adaptación de éstas a ecosistemas terrestres, presentándose en más del 80% de las plantas. El hospedero suministra carbohidratos al hongo y éste transporta los nutrientes que la planta requiere. El establecimiento de la simbiosis requiere procesos armónicos a nivel espacio-temporal, que dependen de señales específicas, para reconocimiento, colonización e intercambio de nutrientes. Las plantas presentan respuestas de defensa frente a la posible invasión de microorganismos, sin embargo, en la simbiosis éstas son débiles, localizadas y no impiden la colonización del hongo. Estas señales se observan en todas las etapas de la simbiosis, siendo la primera señal enviada por la planta en exudados de la raíz, especialmente en condiciones de bajo fósforo. Posteriormente los HFMA activan la expresión de genes que favorecen cambios a nivel celular para la formación del apresorio, del aparato de pre-penetración y en células de la corteza, del arbúsculo y la membrana periarbuscular, para el intercambio de nutrientes. Un aspecto de interés está relacionado con los mecanismos de atenuación de las respuestas de defensa de la planta. Se han planteado diversas hipótesis para entender este fenómeno y aunque el control de la simbiosis está regulado principalmente por la planta, aún se desconoce si los HFMA generan señales que facilitan el debilitamiento de las respuestas de defensa del hospedero. Este documento está orientado a hacer una revisión de las señales de reconocimiento HFMA - plantas para cada fase de la simbiosis, así como de algunos mecanismos de regulación de las respuestas de defensa de la planta para el establecimiento de la simbiosis.

 

 

Hongos Formadores de Micorriza Arbuscular; Interacción planta-HFMA; señales de reconocimiento

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