Ir al contenido principal Ir al menú de navegación principal Ir al pie de página del sitio

Uso de niveles de nitrógeno uréico en sangre (BUN) y leche (MUN) como guía para la suplementación protéica y energética en bovinos

USDA, ARS, Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, Brooksville (Florida) 34601-4672
Ganado vacuno Nutrición Proteína Nitrógeno uréico en sangre Nitrógeno uréico en leche

Resumen

Además de las mediciones tradicionales de cambios en el peso y la condición corporal, los niveles de nitrógeno uréico en sangre (BUN) o en leche (MUN) pueden utilizarse como herramientas para estimar el estado de la nutrición energético-proteínica del ganado. En vacas y novillos sanos, las concentraciones de nitrógeno uréico por debajo de 7 mg/ dL indican deficiencias de proteína (nitrógeno) en la dieta con relación al consumo de energía digestible. En el ganado vacuno de rápido crecimiento o las vacas lecheras de alta producción, las concentraciones de nitrógeno uréico menores de 15 mg/ dL señalan una deficiencia relativa de proteína en la dieta. Las concentraciones de nitrógeno uréico mayores de 19 a 20 mg/dL, se han asociado con una reducción de las tasas de concepción y preñez en vacas lecheras.

Hammond, A. «Uso De Niveles De nitrógeno uréico En Sangre (BUN) Y Leche (MUN) Como guía Para La suplementación protéica Y energética En Bovinos». Ciencia &Amp; Tecnología Agropecuaria, vol. 2, n.º 2, junio de 1998, pp. 44-48, doi:10.21930/rcta.vol2_num2_art:171.
  1. Baker, L.D., Ferguson, J.D. and Chalupa W. 1995. Responses in urea and true protein of milk to different protein feeding schemes for dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 78:2424-2434. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76871-0
  2. Burris, W.R., Bradley, N.W. and Boling, J,A. 1975. Growth and plasma amino acids of steers fed different nitrogen sources at restricted intake. ). Anim. Sci. 40: 714-719. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1975.404714x
  3. Butler, W.R., Calaman, J,J, and Beam, S. W. 1996. Plasma and milk urea nitrogen in relation to pregnancy rate in lactating dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 74: 858-865. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.744858x
  4. Butler, W.R., Cherney, D.J.R. and Elrod, C.C. 1995. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) analysis: Field trial results on conception rates and dietary inputs. In : Proceedings, Cornell Nutrition Conference, pp. 89-95. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
  5. Byers, F.M. and Moxon, A.L. 1980. Protein and selenium levels for growing and finishing beef cattle.). Anim. Sci. so: 1136-1144. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1980.5061136x
  6. Caroll, D.J., Barton, B.A., Anderson, G.W.and Smith, R.D. 1988. lnfluence of protein intake and feeding strategy on reproductive performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy. Sci. 71: 3470-3481. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79953-1
  7. Carver, L.A., Barth, K.M., MeLaren, J.B., Fribourg, H.A., Connell, J.T. and Bryan, J.M.1978. Plasma urea nitrogen levels in beef steers grazing nitrogen-fertilized bermudagrass and orchardgrass-ladino pastures. J. Anim. Sci. 47: 927-934. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1978.474927x
  8. Chase, C.C. Jr., Larsen, R.E., Hammond, A.C. and Randel, R.D. 1993. Effect of dietary energy on growth and reproductive characteristics of Angus and Senepol bulls during summer in Florida. Theriogenology 40: 43-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(93)90340-B
  9. Coleman, S.W.and Frahm, R.R.1987. Nitrogen metabolism in corssbred steers with varying levels of Brahman using a nitrogen depletion-repletion regimen. J. An im. Sci. 65: 1077-1093. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1987.6541077x
  10. Cross, D.L., Ludwick, R.L., Boling, J.A. and Bradley, N.W. 1974. Plasma and rumen fluid components of steers fed two sources and levels of nitrogen. J. Anim. Sci. 38: 404- 409. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1974.382404x
  11. Eisemann, J.H., Hammond, A.C., Rumsey, T.S. and Bauman, D.E. 1989. Nitrogen and protein metabolism and metabolites in plasma and urine of beef steers treated with somatotropin. J. Anim. Sci. 67: 105-115. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1989.671105x
  12. Elrod, C.C. and Butler, W.R. 1993. Reduction of fertility and alteration of uterine pH in heifers fed excess ruminally degradable protein. J. Anim. Sci. 71: 694-701. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.713694x
  13. Elrod, C.C., Van Amburg, M. and Butler, W.E. 1993. Alterations of pH in response to increased dietary protein in cattle are unique to the uterus. J. Anim. Sci. 71: 702-706. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.713702x
  14. E. and Ramsay, K. H. 1994. Use of blood urea nitrogen concentration to determine time and level of protein supplementation in wintering cows. Prof. Anim. Scientist 10: 24-31. https://doi.org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)31923-9
  15. Ferguson, J.D., Galligan, D.T., Blan­chard, T. and Reevs, M. 1993. Serum urea nitrogen and conception rate: The usefulness of test information. J.Anim. Sci. 76: 3742-3746. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77716-4
  16. Folman, Y., Neumark, H., Kaim, M. and Kaufmann, W. 1981. Performance, rumen and blood metabolites in high-yielding cows fed varying protein percents and protected soybean. J. Dairy Sci. 64: 759-768. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(81)82645-8
  17. Galbraith, H. 1980. The effect of trenbolone acetate on growth, blood hormones and metabolites, and nitrogen balance of beef heifers. Anim. Prod. 30: 389- 394. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100024223
  18. Gustafsson, A.H. and Palmquist, D.L. 1993. Diurnal variation of rumen ammonia, serum urea, and milk urea in dairy cows at high and low yields. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 475-484. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77368-3
  19. Hammond, A. C. 1983a. Effect of dietary protein level, ruminal protein solubility and time after feeding on plasma urea nitrogen and the relationship of plasma urea nitrogen to other ruminal and plasma parameters. J. Anim. Sci. 57 (Suppl. 1): 435.
  20. Hammond, A.C. 1983b. The use of blood urea nitrogen concentration asan indicator of protein status in cattle. Bovine Practitio­ ner 18:114-118.
  21. Hammond, A. C. 1992. Use of blood urea nitrogen concentration to guide protein supplementation in cattle. In: 3rd Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium, pp.9-18. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
  22. Hammond, A. C.1997. Update on BUN and MUN as a guide for protein supplemen­ tation in cattle. In: 8th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium, pp. 45-54. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Hammond, A.C., Bowers, E.J. Kunkle, W.E., Genho, P.C., Moore, S.A., Crosby, C.
  23. Hammond, A. C. and Chase Jr., C.C. 1996. Cattle nutritional and reproductive status through blood and milk indicators. In: Proceedings, Tropileche Workshop. CIAT, Cali, Colombia. (In press).
  24. Hammond, A. C., Kunkle, W.E., Bates, D.B. and Sollenberger, L.E. 1993. Use of blood urea nitrogen concentration to predict response to protein or energy supplementation in grazing cattle. In: Proc. of the XVII International Grassland Congress, pp. 1989-1991. Rockhampton, Australia.
  25. Hammond, A. C., Padgett, L.J., Williams, M.J. and Kunkle, W.E.1992. Relative feeding value of rhizoma perennial peanut hay as a supplement to bahiagrass hay for wintering cows and heifers. Prof. Anim. Scientist 8: 48-54. https://doi.org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)32138-0
  26. Hayden, J.M., Williams, J.E. and Collier, R.J.1993. Plasma growth hormonne, insulin-like growth factor, insulin, and thyroid hormone association with body protein and fat accretion in steers undergo­ ing compensatory gain after dietary energy restriction. ). Anim. Sci. 71: 3327-3338. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.71123327x
  27. Hennessy, D.W. and Nolan, J.V.1988. Nitrogen kinetics in cattle fed a mature subtropical grass hay with and without protein meal supplementation. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 39: 1135-1150. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9881135
  28. Hennesey, D.W. and Williamson, P.J. 1990. Feed intake and liveweight of cattle on subtropical native pasture hays. II. The effect of urea and maize flour, or protected-casein. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 41: 1179-1185. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9901179
  29. Holderbaum, J.F., Sollenberger, L.E., Moore, J.E., Kunkle, W.E., Bates, D. B. and Hammond, A.C.1991. Protein supplementation of steers grazing limpograss pasture. J. Prod. Agric. 4: 437-441. https://doi.org/10.2134/jpa1991.0437
  30. Hunter, R.A. and Siebert, B. D. 1985. Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 2. The effect of rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur on voluntary food intake and rumen characteristics. Br.). Nutr. 53: 649-656. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19850074
  31. Kennedy, P. M. and Siebert, B.D. 1972. The utilization of spear grass (Heteropogon contortus). II. The influence of sulphur on energy intake and rumen and blood parameters in cattle and sheep. Aust.). Agric. Res. 23: 45-56. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9720045
  32. Lima, G.F. da C.1995. Nitrogen fertilization, and supplementation effects on limpograss chemical characteristics and utilization by cattle. Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. Florida, Gainesville.
  33. Lima, G.F. da C., Sollenberger, L.E., Kunkle, W.E., Moore, J.E. and Hammond, A.C.1994. Improving limpograss forage quality and utilization using nitrogen fertilization and supplementation. In: National Conference on Forage Quality, Evaluation and Utilization. p 90. Univ. Nebraska, Lincoln.
  34. Marsh, W. H., Fingerhut, B. and Miller, H. 1965. Automated and manual direct methods for the determination of blood urea.). Clin. Chem. 11: 624-627. https://doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/11.6.624
  35. Miettinen, P.V.A. and Juvonen, R.O. 1990. Diurnal variations of serum and milk urea levels in dairy cows. Acta Agric. Scand. 40: 289-296. https://doi.org/10.1080/00015129009438563
  36. Moore, J.E., Bowman, J.G.P. and Kunkle, W.E. 1995. Effects of dry and liquid supplements on forage utilization by cattle. In: Proceedings, AFIA Liquid Feed Symposium, pp81-95. AFIA, Arlington, VA.
  37. Olbrich Jr., J.F.1996. The effect of corn particle size and corn silage level on the performance of Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) steers. Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. Florida, Gainesville.
  38. Peterson, R.G. and Waldern, D.E. 1981. Repeatabilities of serum constituents in Holstein-Friesians affected by feeding, age, lactation, and pregnancy. J. Dairy Sci. 64: 822-831. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(81)82653-7
  39. Preston, R. L., Byers, F. and Stevens, K.R. 1978. Estrogenic activity and growth stimulation in steers fed varying protein levels.). Anim. Sci. 46: 541-546. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1978.462541x
  40. Raun, A.P., Cooley, C.O., Potter, E.L., Rathmacher, R.P. and Richardson, L.F. 1976. Effect of monensin on feed efficiency of feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 43: 670-677. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1976.433670x
  41. Roseler, D.K., Ferguson, J.D., Sniffen, C.J. and Herrema, J. 1993. Dietary protein degradability effects on plasma and milk urea nitrogen and milk nonprotein nitrogen in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 525-534. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77372-5
  42. Steen, W.W., Gay, N., Boling, J.A., Bradley, N.W., McCormick, J.W. and Pendlum, L.C. 1978. Effect of monensin on performance and plasma metabolites in growing-finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 46: 350-355. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1978.462350x
  43. Thomas, P.C. and Kelly, M.E. 1976. The effect of frequency of feeding on milk secretion in the Ayrshire cow. J. Dairy Res. 43: 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900015533
  44. Thompson, W.R. and Riley, J.G.1980. Protein levels with and without monensin for finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. so: 563-571. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1980.504563x
  45. Thornton, R.F. 1970. Factors affecting the urinary excretion of urea nitrogen in cattle. II. The plasma urea nitrogen concentration. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 21: 145-152. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9700145
  46. Vercoe, J.E.1976. Breed and nutritional effects on the composition of faeces, urine, and plasma from Hereford and Brahman x Hereford steers fed on high and low quality diets. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 18: 1003-1013. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9671003
  47. Vercoe, J.E. and Frisch, J.E. 1970. Digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in Brahman, Africander and Shorthorn x Hereford cattle fed lucerne hay. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 8: 131-135.
  48. Ward, J.R., Henricks, D.M., Jenkins, T.C. and Bridges, W.C. 1992. Serum hormone and metabolite concentrations in fasted young bulls and steers. Domestic Anim. Endo. 9: 97-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/0739-7240(92)90023-Q
  49. Williams, M.J., Hammond, A.C., Kunkle, W.E. and Spreen, T.H. 1991. Stocker performance on continuously grazed mixed grass-rhizoma peanut and bahiagrass pastures. J. Prod.Agric. 4: 19-24. November 7, 1996. https://doi.org/10.2134/jpa1991.0019

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Métricas

3127 | 895




 

Creative Commons License

La Revista proporciona acceso abierto y libre a todos sus contenidos; sin barreras legales, económicas o tecnológicas, para lo cual define la siguiente licencia de publicación y uso de los artículos: Licencia de publicación: Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) Texto completo:https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/deed.es