Contenido principal del artículo

La economía del nitrógeno es un tema que viene creciendo a nivel mundial, especialmente en la actividad agrícola cuando por mal manejo de la fertilización ocurren pérdidas por lixiviación que contribuyen a la eutrofización del agua, lo que incrementa la población de algas y, como efecto, reduce la disponibilidad de oxígeno, acelerando el proceso de desnitrificación en el que se produce N2O, conocido por su efecto en el calentamiento global. Igualmente, parte del fertilizante es emitido a la atmósfera por volatización. Esto ha impulsado la creación de técnicas que permiten cuantificar el nitrógeno utilizado por las plantas y el fijado en el suelo a través de microrganismos para hacer más eficiente el empleo del nitrógeno en los sistemas agrícolas. Sin embargo, dentro de las mayores limitantes se encuentra su sensibilidad, especificidad, costo y tecnología que se requiere para aplicarlas. Esto ha conducido a la innovación de procedimientos y a la creación de técnicas que tienen una tasa de error muy bajo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar la descripción de las principales técnicas utilizadas para cuantificar la fijación del nitrógeno con énfasis en los antecedentes, procedimientos, expresiones matemáticas que se usan, y escenarios futuros. La información se describe a partir del análisis de ensayos disponibles en la base de datos Scopus. Este trabajo consolida las técnicas que continúan vigentes para cuantificar el nitrógeno y facilita entender su uso a través del tiempo con modelos de predicción, así como su importancia, ventajas y desventajas.

Aplicación de abonos, eutrofización, fijación de nitrógeno, isótopos, técnicas de fijación

Nelson Jose Vivas-Quila, Universidad del Cauca

phD, Docente. Universidad del Cauca. Investigador grupo Nutrifaca. Popayán - Colombia

Helber Enrique Balaguera-López, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

PhD, Docente. Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

Fonseca-López, D., Vivas-Quila, N. J., & Balaguera-López, H. E. (2019). Técnicas aplicadas en la investigación agrícola para cuantificar la fijación de nitrógeno: una revisión sistemática. Ciencia & Tecnología Agropecuaria, 21(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.21930/rcta.vol21_num1_art:1342

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