Conservación de recursos genéticos de la agrobiodiversidad como apoyo al desarrollo de sistemas de producción sostenibles

Mario Lobo Arias, Clara Inés Medina Cano
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21930/rcta.vol10_num1_art:126

El crecimiento poblacional y los cambios en el entorno requieren de la disponibilidad de diversidad genética para el desarrollo de sistemas de producción sostenibles, eficientes y competitivos. Esto implica colectar, conservar y conocer los atributos de las poblaciones en mantenimiento de especies de valor actual y taxones relacionados, al igual que entidades biológicas con potencial de desarrollo, lo cual cobra importancia dada la creciente erosión genética. Esto plantea la necesidad de estrategias complementarias de conservación ex situ e in situ, dando prioridad a la variabilidad genética a ser incluida en el proceso, debido a los costos de mantenimiento, y considerar factores no sólo económicos sino también sociales, así como los limitantes actuales para acceder a la diversidad internacional. Este artículo presenta una revisión sobre la importancia de la conservación de los recursos genéticos vegetales, animales y de microorganismos de la agrobiodiversidad, e incluye una discusión y algunos aspectos requeridos para la priorización de taxones y tipo de materiales que se deben incluir en el proceso. Para ello, se parte de la premisa de que la conservación de la diversidad genética sirve para la realización de procesos de valor agregado y de utilización posterior.  

 

 

Bancos De Germoplasma; Erosión Genética; Prioridades De Conservación

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